1. Types of mechanical damage
． Strangulation: The exposed belt pulleys, gears, and screws directly twist clothes, sleeves and trousers, gloves, aprons, and long hair into the machine, causing personal injury.
． Object strikes: rotating machine parts, parts that are not firmly stuck, and workpieces flying out during striking operations cause personal injury.
． Crushing: Injuries caused by punches, presses, shears, and forging hammers.
． Smashing: Injury caused by falling parts and lifting objects at high places.
． Crushing injury: injury caused by squeezing the human body or a part of the human body.
． Burns: Damage to the human body caused by hot objects. Such as iron scraps, welding slag, solution and other high-temperature objects damage the human body.
． Puncture cuts: injury to the human body caused by sharp objects.
2. Causes of mechanical damage
． Unsafe state of machinery
Lack or defective protection, insurance, and signaling devices, defective equipment, equipment, and accessories, lack or defective personal protective equipment, appliances, and site environment problems.
． Operator's unsafe behavior
(1) Ignoring safety and operating errors;
(2) Use hands instead of tools to operate;
(3) Use equipment or tools without safety devices;
(4) Operation in violation of regulations;
(5) Wear personal protective equipment and use tools in violation of regulations;
(6) Enter the dangerous area or location;
． Management factor
Defects or errors in design, manufacturing, installation or maintenance, leaders do not pay attention to safety work, there are defects in organization and management, insufficient education and training, operators have poor professional quality, and lack of safety knowledge and self-protection capabilities.
3. General safety regulations for machinery and equipment
The regulations are drawn through many years of summary and blood lessons. In the production process, as long as these regulations are followed, hidden dangers can be eliminated in time and accidents can be avoided.
． Layout requirements
The layout of mechanical equipment should be reasonable, which should be convenient for operators to load and unload workpieces and remove debris, and should also be convenient for maintenance personnel to overhaul and repair.
． Strength and rigidity requirements
The strength and rigidity of the parts and components of the mechanical equipment should meet the safety requirements, the installation should be firm, and no frequent failures should occur.
． Install necessary safety devices
Mechanical equipment must be equipped with reasonable, reliable, and safety devices that do not affect operation.
(1) For the rotating parts and components, safety protection devices such as protective covers, protective baffles, and protective railings should be installed to prevent twisting.
(2) For parts that can cause dangerous accidents such as overpressure, overload, overtemperature, overtime, overtravel, etc., safety devices should be installed, such as overload limiter, stroke limiter, safety valve, temperature limiter, time interrupter Electrical appliances, etc., to prevent accidents.
(3) When certain actions need to warn or remind people, signal devices or warning signs should be installed.
(4) For some parts and components whose sequence of actions cannot be reversed, interlocking devices should be installed.
． Safety requirements for electrical installations of mechanical equipment
(1) The power supply wire must be installed correctly, and there must be no damaged places;
(2) The click insulation should be good, and the wiring board should be protected by a cover;
(3) Switches and buttons should be intact and their live parts should not be exposed;
(4) There should be a good grounding or zero connection device, the wire connection should be firm, and there should be no disconnection; (5) The local lighting should use 36V voltage; 220V voltage should be prohibited;
． Requirements for operating handles and foot switches
Important handles should have reliable positioning and locking devices, and coaxial handles should have obvious differences in length. The foot switch should have a protective cover hidden in the recessed part of the bed. On the one hand, the dropped parts and components will fall on the switch, starting the mechanical equipment and hurting people.
． Environmental requirements and operational requirements
The work site of mechanical equipment should have a good environment, that is, the illumination should be suitable, the noise and vibration should be small, and the parts, tools and fixtures should be placed neatly. Each piece of machinery and equipment should formulate safety operating procedures and inspection, lubrication, and maintenance systems based on its performance and operating sequence, so that the operator can follow it.
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